Thursday, May 14, 2020

Georgetown University Acceptance Rate, SAT/ACT Scores

Georgetown University is a highly selective  private research university with an acceptance rate of 14.5%. Located in Washington D.C., Georgetown is the nations oldest Catholic and Jesuit university. Considering applying to this highly selective school? Here are the admissions statistics you should know. Why Georgetown University? Location: Washington, D.C.Campus Features: Situated above the Potomac River, Georgetowns compact 104-acre campus gives students easy access to the nations capital. The campus is home to numerous attractive stone and brick buildings.Student/Faculty Ratio: 11:1Athletics: The Georgetown Hoyas compete in the NCAA Division I Big East Conference for most sports.Highlights: Georgetowns location has led to a sizable international student population as well as the popularity of the International Relations major. The school is in close proximity to many other D.C. area colleges and universities. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Georgetown University had an acceptance rate of 14.5%. For every 100 students who applied, 14 students were admitted, making Georgetowns admissions process highly competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 22,897 Percent Admitted 14.5% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 51% SAT Scores and Requirements Georgetown requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 68% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th percentile 75th percentile ERW 700 760 Math 710 790 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of Georgetowns admitted students fall within the top 7% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Georgetown scored between 700 and 760, while 25% scored below 700 and 25% scored above 760. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 710 and 790, while 25% scored below 710 and 25% scored above 790. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1550 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at Georgetown. Requirements Georgetown does not require the SAT writing section. Note that Georgetown requires applicants to submit all SAT test scores. Georgetown does not participate in scorechoice; it considers the highest SAT score from a single test date. Applicants are also required to submit scores for 3 Subject tests for admission to Georgetown. ACT Scores and Requirements Georgetown requires all applicants to submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 55% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th percentile 75th percentile English 31 35 Math 28 34 Composite 32 35 This admissions data tell us that most of Georgetowns admitted students fall within the top 3% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Georgetown received a composite ACT score between 32 and 35, while 25% scored above 35 and 25% scored below 32. Requirements Georgetown does not require the ACT writing section. Note that Georgetown requires applicants to submit all ACT test scores. Georgetown does not participate in scorechoice; it considers the highest ACT score from a single test date. Regardless of whether you submit the ACT or SAT, you are still required to submit scores for 3 Subject tests to Georgetown. GPA Georgetown does not provide data about admitted students high school GPAs. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Georgetown Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex.   The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Georgetown. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Georgetown University has a highly competitive admissions pool with a low acceptance rate and high average SAT/ACT scores. However, Georgetown, like most of the countrys top universities, has a holistic admissions process involving other factors beyond your grades and test scores. A strong application essay and glowing letters of recommendation can strengthen your application, as can participation in meaningful extracurricular activities, work experience, and a rigorous high school curriculum. The application requires three short essays: one about a school or summer activity, one about you, and one focused on the school or college at Georgetown to which you are applying. Note that Georgetown is one of the few top universities that uses its own application and does not use the Common Application. Georgetown University also requires all first-year applicants to complete an interview with a local alumnus unless it is geographically impossible. Most interviews take place near the applicants home. Although rarely the most important part of the application, the interview helps the university get to know you better, providing a chance for you to highlight interests that may not be evident on your application, as well as giving you an opportunity to learn more about Georgetown. All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Georgetown University Undergraduate Admissions Office.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Uncle Toms Cabin Essays - 1311 Words

The novel Uncle Toms Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and published in the United States in 1852. The novel depicted slavery as a moral evil and was the cause of much controversy at the time and long after. Uncle Toms Cabin outraged the South and received praise in the North. The publication of Uncle Toms Cabin was a major turning point for the United States which helped bring about the Civil War. Uncle Toms Cabin is said to have contributed to the Civil War because it brought the evils of slavery to the attention of Americans more vividly than any other book had done before (Harrietts Life). The novel made people who had never really thought about slavery realize how cruel and unjust it was. It also turned many†¦show more content†¦Uncle Toms Cabin was liked and disliked by many people in America. When Abraham Lincoln met Harriet Beecher Stowe after the beginning of the American Civil War, he supposedly said to her, So youre the little woman that wrote the book that started this Great War (Harriets Life). Lincoln was referring to Harriett Beecher Stowes book Uncle Toms Cabin. The quote implies that even the president of America had recognized and emphasized the impact of the novel on American Society as being the key cause to something as important as the Civil War. Harriet Beecher Stowe began writing Uncle Toms Cabin after the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed (Africans). The Fugitive Slave Act was an agreement between the north and the south that mainly said that if a runaway slave was caught in a free state, the runaway slave had to be returned to his or her owner (Uncle). She started to publish her story first as a series of stories in a newspaper called the Era, and when a publisher by the name of John Punchard Jewett read the article, he decided to publish it in book form (Harrietts Life). It became the best seller in the United States, England, Europe and Asia (Harrietts Life). The novel also began to be dramatized all over the world without the consent of Stowe. Uncle Toms Cabin not only became a success in book form but also in dramatic from. In this novel there are many families who end up getting torn apart from eachShow MoreRelatedUncle Toms Cabin829 Words   |  3 PagesUncle Toms Cabin, composed by Harriet Beecher Stowe and distributed in 1852, is an abolitionist-themed novel portraying the tragedies of bondage in the United States. It was immensely persuasive, prompted the formation of a basic pejorative, and was maybe even a reason for the Civil War. The story opens on a Kentucky ranch, home to the kind and venerated Uncle Tom, and the junior Eliza and her tyke. The story has a few significant characters, yet bases on Tom and Eliza. The managers of the homesteadRead MoreUncle Toms Cabin1320 Words   |  6 PagesIn the year 1852, nine short years before the civil war began in 1861, Harriet Stowe published arguably the most influential, groundbreaking, and controversial books in American history, Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The novel drew widespread criticism for the depiction of African Americans and slaves in a time when the United States of America was teetering on civil unrest due to the strength of the opposing views between the North and the South. The rapid expansion and growth the United States throughoutRead MoreUncle Toms Cabin Analysis1255 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Uncle Tom’s Cabin†, was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and published in 1852. Stowe’s purpose for writing â€Å"Uncle Tom’s C abin†, was to depict the lives of African Americans that are enslaved to whites in hopes to bring about change and encourage abolition protest. Uncle Tom was portrayed as a Godly man with a good heart it was meant show that slaves are just as human as whites, and that slavery should be saw as inhumane and unjust. There are several important concepts that are alluded to, but slaveryRead More Morality in Uncle Toms Cabin1491 Words   |  6 Pages Morality in Uncle Toms Cabin nbsp; One Work Citednbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Toms Cabin in order to help bring the plight of southern slave workers into the spotlight in the north, aiding in its abolitionist movement. nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Harriet Beecher Stowe, in her work Uncle Toms Cabin, portrayed slaves as being the most morally correct beings, often times un-humanistically so, while also portraying many whites and slave-owners to be morallyRead MoreUncle Toms Cabin Essay690 Words   |  3 PagesUncle Toms Cabin Uncle Toms Cabin follows the lives of two slaves that live on a Kentucky plantation. Tom, a black slave, and a young mulatto woman named Eliza are under the ownership of Mr. Shelby. Tom is his most trusted slave, while Eliza is Mrs. Shelbys beloved servant, whom she has raised since she was a young girl. Mr. Shelby is a kind man, but is not very good with his finances. He is indebted to a slave trader by the name of Haley. The story begins with Haley givingRead MoreRacism in Uncle Toms Cabin1591 Words   |  7 PagesHarriet Beecher Stowes novel Uncle Toms Cabin was the defining piece of the time in which it was written. The book opened eyes in both the North and South to the cruelties that occurred in all forms of slavery, and held back nothing in exposing the complicity of non-slaveholders in the upholding of Americas peculiar institution. Then-president Abraham Lincoln himself attributed Stowes narrative to being a cause of the American Civil War. In such an influenti al tale that so powerfully points outRead MoreSlavery in Uncle Toms Cabin Essay478 Words   |  2 PagesSlavery in Uncle Toms Cabin Stowe presents slavery in the only way she knows how, by using the facts. Several sources of other works in American literature contrast on to how Stowe presents slavery in her novel Uncle Toms Cabin. The elements of slavery are driven through the reflections of theme, characterization, and setting to show that the way slavery is presented is not contradicting. Through the character of Mrs. Shelby, Stowe seems to use her opposition against slavery the mostRead MoreCritical Reflection of Uncle Tom’s Cabin2270 Words   |  10 PagesCritical Reflection of Uncle Tom’s Cabin August 14 2012     Christianity had an essential role in the abolition of slave trade in American Society. American Christianity impressively contributed to American Revolution (1775-1783) as well as Civil War (1861-1865) (Parfait 47). Even though, the role of Christianity in slavery remained abstruse as some Christians, especially from the Southern America supported slavery, its importance in anti-slavery struggle remained noteworthy. Slavery was generallyRead MoreThe Influence of the 1850s in Uncle Toms Cabin2754 Words   |  12 PagesThe Influence of the 1850s in Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin Despite heartbreaking family separations and struggles for antislavery Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) erupted into one of the greatest triumphs recorded in literary history (Downs 228), inspiring plays, pictures, poems, songs, souvenirs, and statues (Claybaugh 519). As Uncle Toms Cabin was being published in the National Era newspaper in forty weekly installments (x), it was received by southerners asRead MoreUncle Toms Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe1144 Words   |  5 PagesUncle Tom’s Cabin has been explained as being a history of harmful acts towards Blacks in America for a period of a hundred and thirty years (Stowe, â€Å"Nineteenth†). 51).The book Uncle Tom’s Cabin was one of History’s favorite books (Stowe, â€Å"Nineteenth† 1). It talks about how Tom would do anything for the white man (Stowe, Uncle 1). The southerners did not give Harriet Beecher Stowe and credit for writing the book (Piacentino 1). Uncle Tom showed a lot of Christianity in this book, but the master

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Impact of Cultism and Examination Malpractices on the Quality of Education in the 21st Century Nigeria free essay sample

INTRODUCTION Many Nigerians were aware of the rot in the nation under the years of military dictatorship, but hardly knew the magnitude of the rot. As it is with the nation, so it is with the education sector; only those saddled with the responsibility of administering our education system can appreciate the crisis in the education system. And just as the damage done to the nation will take a long time to correct, sanitizing the education sector will take quite some years of continuous and determined reformation. Many reform measures do not bear fruits overnight. This is even more so in the education sector. For example, the impact of Chief Obafemi Awolowo’s free primary education was not fully felt among the Yoruba till the civil war and after, when they had to occupy Federal positions abandoned by the Igbo. The twin evils of campus cultism and examination malpractices entrenched themselves in the campuses during the years of military despotism. They are product of the years of decay while the nature of inter-campus linkages of cult groups as well as the sophistication with which malpractices are now being perpetuated in various examinations has made the matter more difficult to rout (Omabu, 2003). Aims and Objectives of Education in Nigeria Education has been described as the best legacy that any nation or individual could leave behind for generation yet to come. It is an invaluable asset, therefore, to both the individual and the society; since it has been also used from time immemorial, as a veritable instrument of cultural transmission. Thus education, in one form or the other, had always been an integral part of the human society. Generally, forms of education could be broadly categorized into formal and informal. Whereas, the former takes place in a formal or official setting, compartmentalized and certificated with designated learners and teachers, the latter is not so clearly designed. It has a longer life-span commencing from birth and ending in the grave, with everyone around the learner constituting his teacher even as no certificate is required. Yet, this form of education is as important as the former; if not more; if only for the fact that it is quite a practical thing with all the evidences of effective and functional noble expectations and objectives of the formal system of education. Indeed, it has a multilateral aim with the end objectives being to produce an individual who is honest, respectable skilled and cooperative and conforms to the social order of the day. According to Fafunwa (1974), seven aspects of these educational objectives can be identified and these include:- 1. To develop the child’s latent physical skills. . To develop character. 3. To inculcate respect for elders and those in position of authority. 4. To develop intellectual skills. 5. To acquire specific vocational training and to develop a healthy attitude towards honest labour. 6. To develop a sense of belonging and to participate actively in family and community affair. 7. To understand, appreciate and promote the cultural heritage of the community at large. Thus, it was for good reasons that the Nigerian formal education system took after these objectives as enunciated in the National Policy on Education (1981). According to Policy, the broad objectives of Nigerian education should emphasize such things as:- i. The inculcation of the right type of value attitudes for the survival of individual society. ii. The training of the mind in building valuable concepts, generalizations and understand of the world around. iii. The acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies of both mental and physical nature as equipment for the individual to live in his society. iv. The acquisition of relevant and balance knowledge of facts about local and world phenomena. In the light of the first two objectives above, Nigerian education was to be geared towards self realization, better human relationship, self and national economic efficiency, citizenship, national consciousness, national unity, social and political progress, science and technological progress as well as national reconstruction. In pursuance of the objectives therefore, our educational institutions (pre- to post-primary) have designed their programmes in such a way that functional individual who will be capable of contributing his quota to national development is produced. But the question however remains as to what extent have these objectives been achieved? How well and indeed dependable are those measuring instruments such as internal and external examinations capable of producing the desired results? Evolutionary Trends in Cultist Activities in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions The phenomenon of campus cults in Nigeria dated back to 1952, when Wole Soyinka winner of the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize for Literature-and a group of friends at the University of Ibadan formed the Pyrates Confraternity with the motto â€Å"Against all Conventions†. The skull and cross bones were their insignia, cultivating a bohemian style that ridiculed the colonial attitudes mode of dress of the day. This caught on among students and over the next two decades, the fraternity, a non-violent body, became established in all the tertiary institutions that emerged in post-independence Nigeria. The emergence of campus cults as they are known in Nigeria today began with a split in the Pyrates Confraternity during the early 1970s when a breakaway group formed the Buccaneers Confraternity followed by the emergence of the Black Axe or the Neo-Black Movement. Inter-group rivalry then set in, even though skirmishes between them were limited to fist fights. The 1980s saw the multiplication of cults in the more than 300 tertiary institutions across Nigeria as new groups such as the Eiye, Vikings, Amazons and Jezebel emerged, bringing with them more intensely violent rivalry. By 1984, when Soyinka initiated the abolition of the Pyrates Confraternity in all tertiary institutions, the phenomenon of violent had developed a life of its own. By the mid-1980s, reports had it that some of the cults have been co-opted by elements in the intelligence and security services serving the military government such that they were used as foils to the left-wing student unions which, along with university teachers, were among the only remaining bastions of opposition to military rule. Cultism includes the activities of secret cults or societies that are very rampant in our institutions of learning today. The founding fathers of such societies do not have the mind of carrying out evils but as a pressure group that can monitor and defend the interest of the immorality of students’ populace without violence. But the activities of the various cults seen day in our institutions are far from the above reasons. They have constituted themselves into gangs of â€Å"never-do-well† set of people. Their mission today is to loot, kill, steal and destroy lives and properties at will. The violence associated with them is reported to be as a result of battles for supremacy among them. They have constituted themselves into a big cog in the wheel of Nigeria’s education development. Indeed, the growth and maturation of examination malpractice tendencies in our tertiary institutions have been considered as one of the direct fallouts of cultism. Hardly a month passes these days, without reports of deaths of students or staff resulting from cult-related violence. This has not only created an atmosphere of insecurity in our campuses, it is also diverting attention from the primary purpose of the universities which is education. At a time when funding of these institutions are inadequate, and the standard of education is said to be falling, cultism and examination malpractices tendencies are clearly a big problem for the concerned authorities. Both of the most frequently discussed problems in the education sector today; since indiscipline in schools is central to the factors contributing to the fast dwindling, declining and deteriorating educational standard. The various acts of indiscipline commonly perpetrated by students such as truancy, stealing, hooliganism, examination malpractices, sexual immoralities and cultism among others are all destructive to the educational system. Taiwo (2004) declared that â€Å"what we are all witnessing today in the education sector is a sad reflection of corruption in the society and the low priority placed on standardization and improvement of the intellectual custodians of our time by those in governance†. This is against the fact that most members of these cults are from rich homes and are never serious with their studies; thus prompting their venturing into examination malpractices. Whenever they fail their courses, they react violently through their cult members against the teachers in charge of their failed courses. They operate at night and conduct initiation of new members at dawn in these institutions coming out with dangerous weapons at the middle of the nights when students who are ignorant of their activities fall victim. The recent arrest of some students who were believed to be cult members at Esa-Oke Federal Technical College serves as typical case in point. The fire of cult terrorism on the campuses which raged on for about one year, after the half-heated spray of cult antidote by the Federal Government in 1999, has steadily intensified and burst into flames once more. In the first two weeks of August 2004, 33 students of three universities were brutally murdered in cultic butcheries, suspected to have been perpetuated by cult members among students of tertiary institutions. Of the figure, 15 were of the Ebonyi State University, whose eight other students had similarly been killed the previous year. The rest 18 were of the Enugu State University of Science and Technology and the University of Nigeria Nsukka, whose five other students were shot dead in June, 2002, by cultists (Vanguard, 2004). The toll of the ever-intensifying cultic butcheries had to lecturers and officers of these institutions. Only recently, two lecturers, one each from the ESUT and the UNN, were shot dead by suspected cultists; while suspected terrorists threatened to kill the new Vice-chancellor of University of Benin, Prof. Emmanuel Nwanze, if he failed to dismantle the committee on â€Å"Renunciation and Cultism†, which he set up after two medical students of the university were killed by suspected cultists. The cultists have also widened the scope of their operation to include armed robbery. Reasons for Prevalence of Cultist Activities in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions It is often claimed that some parents of these cultists are the brains behind the sponsoring of evil clubs releasing funds and weapons to them to carry out their obnoxious acts against humanity. This indecent moral values impacted into these youths are giving them more confidence to feel that nothing will happen to them even if they are caught with the belief that money answereth all things. Cultism in larger society has become a celebrated phenomenon among the political class who equally happen to be in control of the wealth of the nation. There are enough resources to sponsor to sponsor the baby-cultist in our institutions by these sets of evidence their political opponents whether real or perceived. Considering the various killings of innocent students in our institutions by cult members, one may want to ask, why have solutions eluded us these years in bringing a stop to the menace of this anti–social behaviour? We have remained in our present state of confusion for the number of reasons, which according to Taiwo (2004) include:- i. Lack of concerted and consistence political will to deal with the problem once and for all. ii. Constantly shifting and unsettled socio-cultural and educational policies and practices, which tend to negative previous efforts at solving the problem. iii. Sudden and drastic dislocation of our scale of value whereby the intellectual custodians have become systematically relegated yielding place to other less important priorities. iv. Worshipping of money to discredit intellectual zealousness among the upcoming youths. Odili (2004) gave 11 possible causes of the rising cases of cultism in these institutions to include:- i. Erosion of Education Standards ii. Economic Difficulties iii. Emulation of Military Coupists iv. Adventurism and Egotism v. Sponsorship by Community Leaders vi. Lack of Integration vii. Peer Group Influence and Drug Addiction viii. Bad Parenting and Erosion of Family Values ix. Oil Bunkering x. Sponsorship by Politicians. The diminishing economic prosperity also contributes greatly. There is the crisis of confidence and of faith in our educational institutions leading to a general state of anxiety and an erosion of confidence in getting jobs after school by the majority of the students. From the state of confusion to which the society exposed our youth, one may conclude that cultism is an offshoot and indeed a reflection of our corrupt society, which had for long plunged our educational sector into serious malfunctioning and dislocation. The Guardian (2005), in an editorial, attempted an explanation of the situation and why the problem had remained seemingly intractable in the submissions that â€Å"The violence associated with the cults currently can be attributed to the general breakdown of values which we once held sacrosanct. The premium attached to human life has plummeted so badly that youths can now kill without flinching†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . We therefore cannot combat the cults menace without paying attention to the problem of the larger society. An obvious explanation for the resurgence and worsening of cult crisis on the campuses is the inadequate, half-hearted enforcement of the measures already officially pronounced. The slaughter of five students of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife in one fell swoop in 1999 prompted Federal Government’s adoption of an anti-cult strategy, part of which was an offer of monetary incentive to repentant cult members among students nationwide. In keeping with some recommendations of judicial panel on the cultic killings too, the government vowed to establish a unit to identify secret cults and their activities in all tertiary institutions. Also, the government empowered heads of the institutions to summarily dismiss any student properly identified as a cult member, and proposed a data-bank of students so dismissed to forestall their re-admission into any other similar institutions in Nigeria. Had these measures been adequately enforced, the soaring rate of cultic terrorism would have been drastically reduced. But the government has merely pointed its anti-cult armoury without really using the weapons to fight the bloody cults. Besides, the government’s order to heads of tertiary institutions to summarily dismiss cult members among their students is rendered ineffectual by the plea of the police, in a number of cases, of non-existence of a relevant laws to prosecute students for their involvement in cult activities; as the long-standing decree prohibiting cultism on the campuses is rendered unenforced, null and void. Such expelled students have often safely returned to their institutions for being secret cult members brandishing court orders for their reinstatement. The kid-glove handling of serious cult cases by the police and the judiciary, combined with the thickening suspicion that a number of rich parents, influential politicians and government officials sponsor cultism on the campuses, gives the cultists the erroneous feeling that they would always escape punishment, or if at all convicted, would suffer mild punishment (Daily Champion, 2004). Implications of Cultist Activities in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions All these are not without their very grave implications worth mentioning here. Although not all the students are involved in cultism, the few that are involved do considerable damage to the system. Since violent cult activities started, thousands of students have lost their lives to it while properties worth millions have also been destroyed. Apart from the injured and those rusticated or expelled, troubled universities students are generally known for their activism everywhere. Together with the media and civil societies, they help to protest against bad policies of government. The Vietnam War for instance, ended after heavy protests by students and other civil groups. British students recently protested against the proposed hike in fees by their government. All these are positive actions by university students. Although Nigerian students have, over the years, contributed their quota to national development, the issue of cultism has come to dent their image. If it is true that the youth of today are the leaders of tomorrow, then the stackholders in education must rise up to the challenges posed by the courge of cultism. Despite the much already done in this regard, more still need to be done to eradicate cultism from our institutions of higher learning. Summarily, Odili (2004) pinpointed 7 implications of this trend to include the following:- 1. Destruction of Lives and Properties 2. Upsurge in Crime due to Arms Proliferation 3. Epileptic University System 4. Loss of Prospective Investors 5. Loss of Government Revenue through Illegal Bunkering 6. Cost of Ma intaining Law and Order 7. Threat to Government Nature and Types of Examination Malpractices among Students Today in Nigeria, there has been an increasing occurrence of examinations malpractices among students than ever before, permeating every public examination, like the West African Examination Council (WAEC) Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) and lately National Examination Council (NECO) with rampant cases of examinations results not released or cancelled outright for many candidates. Most of these cases have come to be linked directly to examination malpractices. Similarly, institutions of higher learning have gone sophisticated in these malpractices to the extent that reports of expelled students on account of these have become a common occurrence; going on unabated. It is even believed that many prospective candidates seeking admission into higher institutions today often employ others to write the examinations for them. This readily explains the antecedent of those found with the habit in institutions of higher learning. This is because they tend to carry on, with more sophistication though, when they get into the institutions. Little wonder then that the cult platform will seem particularly appealing to this group of students as an easy escape, with a view to shoring up their academic bankruptcy. Hence the rather mutual relationship that lies between cultism and examination malpractices in these institutions. Meanwhile, the New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language (1992) defines examination as a formal, written, spoken or practical test especially at school or college, to see how much you know about a subject, or what you can do. On the other hand, the term alpractice refers to careless, wrong or illegal behaviour while in a professional job (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2000). Olanipekun (2003) views it as ‘the failure to carry out properly or honestly condition specified by the examination body (School authority, for example) for the evaluation of students in a programme of study’. It implies therefore that any student who before, during, after or in anticipati on of any examination or test goes against the rules and regulations guiding the conduct of the examination is involved in examination malpractices. Examination malpractices come in varying forms, shapes and sizes; with differing designations such as ‘microchips’, ‘macro-chips’, ‘download’, ‘laptop’, ‘giraffe’ and quite recently, the use ‘mercenaries’. Micro and macro chips are same techniques except for the variation in the sizes of the imported materials. Whereas the former has to do with small pieces of extraneous materials imported into the examination’s venue, the latter is of more significant size. â€Å"Download† refers to the bringing in of the whole text from which the candidate intends to copy. Sometimes the scientific calculator can be used for the storage of relevant data, formulas etc. to be downloaded for use in the examination hall. As for ‘laptop’, the individual candidate’s lap is used as the writing surface from where relevant information can be copied in the examination as the need arises. This type is more prevalent among female in view of the fact that it is rather easier to do with the wearing of skirts. â€Å"Giraffe† happens to be the age-long style whereby candidates use neck-stretching to look at what another person was doing. All these have, however, come to look like a child’s play when compared with the sophistication and artistry that mercenary represents. A major difference between mercenary and other forms of examination malpractices is that whereas the actual candidates in question perpetuate other forms, ‘mercenary’ involves the recruitment of an external body to write the examinations on the candidate’s behalf. The examination mercenary syndrome thus refers to the practice whereby candidates employ and pay external person(s) to sit in and write examinations on their behalf. Usually, the mercenary is considered as the intellectual where-withal to write the examinations successfully for the one who has engaged his ‘services’. This is because, such an individual either comes from higher institutions of learning or had already succeeded in similar examinations in the past. When ‘mercenary’ is used in institutions of higher learning, he is either a more competent hand in the course concerned or it is so believed. Sometimes, candidates from other institutions of higher learning are imported for the job. It suffices to state categorically that the syndrome is almost completely male-dominated generally associated with monetary incentives, reward or gratification, and sometimes to compensate an amorous relationships. There have also been a few other cases where the ‘mercenary’ is self-employed, that is, doing it (in compassion, they claim) for someone who, in actual fact, has not solicited such a service in the first place. Friends, sometimes male, often do this for their female colleagues as a demonstration of true friendship. Thus, it can be concluded from the foregoing that it is the ‘mercenary’ and means of settling the fees to be charged which, of course, varies from one ‘mercenary’ to the other. Implications of Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions This unfortunate development in our educational system represents a high sophistication to which examination malpractices had risen in recent times. Sadly too, some parents have been found to encourage the perpetuation of this ugly act by their children/wards either directly or indirectly. Not only has this contributed to the diminishing standard of our education, but it has also helped to cast aspersion on individual candidates’ certificates, which many often claimed, have not always been a true reflection of their academic standing. Due to this weak background, it is not surprising therefore that many candidates who secured admission into higher institutions with such results have been much of a disappointment. They simply could not leave up to their billings in all ramifications. Attendant frustration often result in sundry other malpractices in examinations to such an extent that they are sooner or later certified as academically unfit and marked for withdrawal on academic ground. Desperate ones among them would want to do all things possible to hang on. This often take them to all kinds of anti-social vices, prominent among which is cultism. The individual, which is the bedrock of the society, is by this token, being malformed and deformed for the future. There is no doubt therefore, that all kinds of examination malpractices stand condemnable by all the stakeholders in the education sector. This is for the simple fact that to compromise academic standards is one sure way to mortgage, if not the present, certainly the future of a people. Our today, and whatever it stands for, represents the foundations of our tomorrow. Prevalence of examination malpractices, especially the mercenary syndrome, indicates the weak foundations upon which we are to build our tomorrow therefore. Yet, our credible and lasting tomorrow is already being endangered with this ever-increasing wave of academic frauds and immoral dispositions (Issa, 2003). Although many of such students end up with brilliant results, especially at external examinations, they often find it difficult to live up to those results after securing admission into institutions of higher learning. Their apparent inability to cope well in their studies, quite often, leads to frustration thereby encouraging their environment into cultism and other related social vices. The bulk of them end up badly in their academic pursuits while the remaining few who would have crookedly sailed through to the end become social misfits. For one, they are hardly good at their jobs even as the anti-social tendencies remain with them throughout life. Yet, human resources have been considered the most vital of all resources needed for both individual and societal developments. Incidentally, the education system represents the most veritable instrument with which human resources could be created and developed. It therefore goes without saying that the individual and society’s success in ensuring the laying of a good foundation for our tomorrow lies in our ability to rise above the challenges posed by this trend in examination malpractices and cultism. The Way Forward Hope is not lost yet once we are alive to the rescue mission. With respect to cultism, one cannot but agree with Odili (2004) on his 7-point agenda for a way forward, which are: 1. Moral Upbringing of Children. 2. Public Enlightenment Advocacy by the Media. 3. Re-orientation in our Tertiary Institutions and Better Funding. 4. Integrity Watch for Business, Community and Political Leaders. 5. Anti-cult Law 6. Law Enforcement 7. Job Creation and Good Governance Beyond enforcing the relevant laws on campuses, the government should step out to improved the university environment, which tends to be a fertile ground for breeding cultists. Given the uncongenial condition of the universities, bereft of teaching and learning materials, teachers’ incessant strikes, examination malpractices and school shut downs, students have found cult activities quite appealing. Their utmost goals of vain glory and supremacy are cheaply attainable through enlistment in cults. If universities are meant to impart knowledge and mould character, while their degrees and diplomas are awarded only to people found worthy in leaning and character, then any student identified as a cultist, murderer, or robber should be punished accordingly. They must not be allowed to remain hit-squads and agent of destruction of lives and property. Only the full weight of the law can warn them that cultism is evil, and pays no dividends. As for the case of examination malpractices, there would be the need to change our orientation and value system, which seemed to emphasize the erroneous at all cost and by all means belief, which are not only negative but also counter-productive. It is high time we begin to have a sound realization of the fact that it is not only by having a degree that one can succeed or excel in life. It is much more beyond that, because there are still a score of people who, in spite of not having a degree, actually succeeded and excelled in their chosen careers. The point must also be made that it is far better to be a self-reliant, successful artisan than an unemployed, jobless and street-roaming degree holder. If we succeed in this orientation bid, hopes are that majority of those that would remain will be those who interested in pursuing serious active studies would match the requirement and demands of a standard educational system. Finally, students must be made to understand and appreciate hard work, dedication and commitment to studies. This is where the teachers and the entire school authority need to be highly responsible and responsive. Students must be treated and dealt so as to encourage others to even better performance thereby looking up to them as source of inspirations. At that point in time, when the majority would have come to appreciate hard work, examination malpractices in general, the mercenary syndrome as well as cultism, would have been relegated to the status of an abnormality, as against the restigious status they currently enjoy. REFERENCES Aje S. A. (2001) Problems of Cultism in Nigerian School, Ilorin. Afri – Focus Investment Daily Champion, Nigeria (2004) â€Å"Alarming Rise in Cultism†. An Editorial Opinion in Daily Champion, Nigeria. August 30th (Available at: http://champion-newspapers. com/) Edeki, E. (2004) â€Å"Personal View: Curbing Cultism in our Educational Syst em†. Vanguard on line Edition January 05. (Available at: http:www. Vanguardonline. com/) Fafunwa A. B. (1974) History of Education in Nigeria London: George Allen. P. 20. The Guardian Newspaper (2005) â€Å"Editorial on the Upsurge in Cultist Activities† March 16 (Available at: http://www/. guardiansnewspapernigeria. com/) Issa, A. O. (2003) ‘Examination Mercenary Syndrome and the Future of Nigerian Educational System’. A Speech Delivered at the First Book Fair â€Å"FEDPOFFA 2003†. Organized by FEDPOFFA Consult (1981) Federal Ministry of Education: Lagos. Rev. ed. P. 45. New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language (1992). New York: Lexicon Publications INC. P. 625. Odili, P. (2004) â€Å"The Cult Phenomenon and Security Implications† A paper presented at the Summit of Security at the House of Representative, Abuja. Olanipekun, N. O. (2003) Examination Malpractices in Nigeria Schools: An Indepth Analysis, Offa: Royal Prestige Venture Omabu, O. (2003) ‘Campus Cult Violence Claims 115 Lives’. This Day News September 4. (Available at: http:/This Day News Nigeria. com/) Oyebanji, M. (2003) Campus Confraternities. Oro: Fabule Press. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of English Language (2000). Great Clarendon, Oxford University Press P. 399. Taiwo, A. (2004) â€Å"Campus Cults: a Reflection of a Corrupt Society†. Daily Times Nigeria. May 13 (Available at: http//www/. daily times of Nigeria. com).

Friday, April 10, 2020

The New Beetle Case free essay sample

At a time when American’s were sceptical about the purchase of imported cars, due to lack of availability of spare partes and costly repairs, heightening Germany’s existing image problem in the market, Volkswagen introduced the Beetle in 1949 which turned out to be a phenomenal success and envisaged a cult-following by the 60s. However due to factors, such as Deutsche Mark appreciation, declining hatchback popularity, new environmental legislations all led to a dramatic decline in the sales of the Volkswagen Beetle. The sales after peaking in 1968, died out completely by 1981. Subsequently with a renewed focus to leverage a no. of value propositions from the old beetle such as strong heritage value, focus on unique driving experience and delivering German technology at an affordable value, the company decided to re-model the Beetle to incorporate design features such as –honest, reliable, simple and original to design the New Beetle. After meeting with success through its initial promotional campaigns, the company’s marketing manager Vanzura had decided to target the Baby bloomers with a proposition aimed at ‘indulging in nostalgia’. We will write a custom essay sample on The New Beetle Case or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page While rival companies spent upwards of 100 million dollars towards promotional budget, Vanzura would have to content with 25% of the typical budget size, which would further shrink if Vanzura would have to allocate dollars towards promotional expense of the New Passat which had debuted just 5 months ago. With this constraint on its budgetary resources, the company marketing manager set out to decide the marketing strategy to be followed for the new Beetle. The fundamental problem came down to targeting a broad customer base by advertising in the televisions or to position itself to cater to a niche category by advertising in the print media. The old Beetle †¢Beetle was the most successful car model of its time, more than 21 million Beetles were sold. It also was also a huge success in America and had become an true American icon. †¢The Beetle had a huge fan following in the new generation of Americans. It had become a symbol of individuality and personal style. †¢Beetle found a place in Disney movies as â€Å"Herbie the love bug†, and also in the lives of the common American as a member of his family. A brief history of VW and Beetle After the launch of Beetle in America, which turned to be great success, VW of America was set up as a subsidiary to VW. A few car models were also launched like Rabit, Microbus and Karmann Gia sport coupe which were successful as well. However Beetle was still the leading car model for VW as it always contributed more than 65% sales (by volume) for VW till 1974. However, due to strengthening of Deutsche Mark, competition from cheaper Japanese brands VW saw its sales declining in US during 1970s. Due to recession in 1982, declining popularity of hatchbacks and inability to comply with the environmental legislation Beetle was withdrawn from the US markets. VW also took a hit and sales dropped to less than 50000 by 1993. In 1994 a campaign was launched to revive VW and a plan for relaunching Beetle in 1998 was also considered. Bring back the Beetle â€Å"What are you waiting for Doc? Bring back the Beetle. And hurry. † This was the the opening sentence of a letter to Dr Ferdinand Piech, Chairman Volkswagen AG Board of management, which appeared in Chicago Tribune. This reflected the enthusiasm and the anticipation prevailing in the market for the New Beetle. But there were some challenges which were to be addressed before the launch. One of the major challenges was to remove the misconceptions about Beetle. Beetle was considered to be a â€Å"toy car†. This image of Beetle needed a repair to ensure the New Beetle is looked upon as a â€Å"Real, Driveable car†. The Beetle did have a segment of potential customers, ie the Baby Boomers, but for a sustained growth it also had to look beyond and exploit the appeal which Beetle had in other customer segments. Efforts to retain Baby Boomers were also required because the New Beetle was not a replica of the old Beetle. Thus positioning of Beetle was the key concern for VW. Positioning of the new Beetle with the backdrop of old Beetle’s image success coupled with a limited advertising budget was a challenging job and was considered as â€Å"Mission : Impossible† for a marketer. New Beetle: SWOT analysis Strength: The new beetle enjoys an iconic heritage; it is the successor of a car which enjoyed cult following among the mass and the elite alike during its hay-days. The strong brand image of yesteryears associated with the TYPE I Beetle definitely acts as one of its strength. In addition the new Beetle in today’s age of technology leverages its strength of affordable German engineering to provide its users with the joy of a unique driving experience, which the owners can associate with it. And finally, its design principles – honest, simple, reliable and original, which reinforce its penchant to use classic elements and basic shapes with the help of cutting edge technology and modern detail is symbolic of its spirit and historical strength. Weakness: One of the concerns which would keep the marketing unit busy at work would be the ‘toy car’ image which has been tagged to it in the market. However the case exclusively quotes that â€Å"While many people saw the car as more of a toy, the New Beetle had its fair share of fans. † Another weakness of the new Beetle was that it was one of the more expensive cars in the segment which was contrary to its customer’s perception of affordability that they attached to its predecessor. However the main concern for the new Beetle was the limited advertisement budget at its disposal and the consequently low ad recall that emanated from it. Opportunities: Notwithstanding the above facts, there were several opportunities in the arket for the new Beetle which it could take advantage of. The primary being the emergence of a new generation of fun loving consumers who wanted to express themselves by showing off to the world their car and the confidence associated with it. The nostalgia surrounding the car coupled with innovative promotions and attractive lease financing schemes all represent a favourable proposition for the marketing of the car. In addition, the new Beetle seeks to explore the revelation of people’s love for round shapes using this as an opportunity to promote its simple yet modern designs. Threats: While the above discussion paints a rosy picture of the new Beetle, all isn’t well with the car and/or the market in general. A decrease of 5% in the small car segment might be indications of a contract market. This coupled with the propositions of competition from Japanese auto makers, in terms of price and volume represents a growing threat which the new Beetle must look to effectively counter. In addition the loss of exclusivity of dealers meant that the dealers were looking elsewhere to regain costs and were not optimistic about Beetles’ selling strengths. While limited promotional budget represented a weakness in the new Beetles’ marketing campaign it might as well stand for a potent threat, the failure in increase of which might steam-roll the marketing campaign of the new Beetle. New Beetle Value proposition (CCDS): The New Beetle creates substantial value for the customers because of its cutting edge German Technology and revamped stylish looks. The Car also emphasizes on safety with dual air bags and driving comfort. This was adequately communicated to the customers with new ad campaigns especially with the spearhead Drivers Wanted. Again campaign. The Beetle was banking heavily on the nostalgia factor and was promoted with several ads highlighting this feature. The Beetle added perceived value in the customers mind with in built six speaker music systems, and in built air conditioning in the standard package. This coupled with zero maintenance left a very favourable impression in the customers view. The Beetles extended warranty and dealership training programmes ensured that this created value was sustained over a long period. New Beetle: A New Product The New Beetle could be considered as a new product which was being launched. Applying the Booz Allen Hamilton theory, we can see the following characteristics of in the New Beetle. 1. The new Beetle launched with an intention to have the same appeal as the old Beetle had and exploit the emotional attachment which people had with beetle. The new Beetle, however had a different design, better technical features and was â€Å"no replica† of the old Beetle. 2. The new Beetle was to be carefully positioned in the market so that it appeals all segments of customers. It was to be projected as a â€Å"real, driveable car†. This required a repositioning of Beetle in the market. These factors indicate that the New Beetle was a New product, however it did carry the emotions and design principles which the original Beetle had. The Beetle Market Arnold Communications had done a lot of market research to understand the customer and dealer perceptions about Volkswagen. They found that most of the VW consumers were young, slightly affluent and more educated than an average car buyer. The enjoyed the unique driving experience provided by VW cars. VW was perceived to be affordable as well. These notions, followed by the Drivers Wanted campaig set the stage for targeting a huge market for the New Beetle. As per the initial market research VW of America, the New Beetle appealed to a number of different consumer segments. The market included the Baby Boomers and also the new core audience of the 18-34 year olds. Strategy: The target market segment for â€Å"The New Beetle† was demographically diverse though the potential customers embodied qualities such as confidence, individualism and a desire to be the centre of attention. They loved to drive the spirited design and gave more importance to the â€Å"driving experience†. The co-branding campaign with K2 and Trek was consistent with the target audience’s aspirations and desires. The â€Å"Drivers Wanted† was suitable for communicating the basic value proposition of â€Å"The New Beetle† also. Therefore, the company should continue with these two campaigns to utilize the brand awareness that was created. The euphoria created in the market about the launch of new model should be utilized completely. A major section of the target audience is that of baby boomers who are nostalgic about the brand â€Å"beetle†. Hence, by sticking to the original campaign, this euphoria can be capitalized upon. The basic proposition of â€Å"offering German Engineering affordably† is somewhat violated as the price range of â€Å"The New Beetle† is one of the highest in the small car segment. This can be mitigated by helping customers to meet this higher price. The company did it successfully in the past by providing attractive lease financial deals. This strategy should be continued for this brand also. Campaign: The launch has received a euphoric press reception and well orchestrated PR efforts had helped this cause. However, positive press coverage was not enough to sell the product. The company faces a paucity of advertising funds and the most economic and effective campaign would be a combination of TV and Print advertising. The TV campaign should be targeted at the younger generation customers with flashy jazz loving ads. This sub-segment is the main target audience of the â€Å"The New Beetle†. This TV campaign will use the majority of the funds but will create awareness among a broader customer base. On the other hand, print advertising should be targeted at â€Å"the baby boomers† with the value proposition of â€Å"indulging in nostalgia†. A print media campaign in magazines like ‘Architectural Digest’ would be most useful. It has a high ‘Simmons Descriptor’ which indicates the that the readership is high among those people who are conventional and more likely to be associated with the ‘baby boomers’ section.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Up from Slavery, Down to the Ground Sailing Amistad. A Movie Review

Up from Slavery, Down to the Ground Sailing Amistad. A Movie Review It is hard to pin down why historical movies are so hard to shoot. Whether it is the conflict of a desire to both stay true to the source material and at the futile attempts to whitewash the history, or simply the inability to depict every single historical event without adding here and there generic characters, historical movies definitely offer a plethora of challenges for both the director and the cast. Exaggerating historical facts to the nth degree, Amistad yet offers a unique experience and sufficient food for thoughts.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Up from Slavery, Down to the Ground: Sailing Amistad. A specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The plot of the movie is rather complicated, mostly because it is based on real historical events. At the very start of the movie, the audience is immediately taken onto the Amistad, the ship on which Africans are taken to Spain to become slaves. Thus, the movie immediately in forms the audience about the settings, which are the XIX-century USA. Further on, Senjbe Pieh, aka Cinque, one of the slaves and the movie’s main protagonist, is introduced to the audience. He manages to release himself and the rest of the Africans; thereafter, they kill almost entire crew. Arrested in Connecticut, the Africans are to undergo the trial. After a range of unfair actions towards the African accused, such as switching the judges from kind and sympathetic Juttson to cold-blooded and cruel Coglin, the Africans nearly lose all hope. Eventually, the barrister, John Quincy Adams, delivers his final speech: â€Å"The Declaration of Independence? What of its conceits? All men created equal, inalienable rights, life, liberty, and so on and so forth? What on Earth are we to do with this? I have a modest suggestion† (Amistad), and tears the Declaration in halves. The Africans are free. However, the fact that Cinque learns that his family has been sold into slavery a s he returns home adds a bitter note to the movie, as if saying, â€Å"There is still a lot to be done.† Rethinking the movie’s significance, it is most reasonable to start with the lead character. Although the audience doubtlessly sympathizes with Cinque, he is quite compelling. It is worth appreciation that the movie does not portray him as a martyr, turning him into a paper-thin element of black-and-white reality; on the contrary, there is a lot of controversy about him. Not only does he start a revolt on the ship, but also kills one of the crew members. Cinque is a criminal, which makes the emphasis on equal rights even stronger – he needs to be prosecuted as a human should be, not just sent to a slaughterhouse like a beast: â€Å"Give us, us free† (Amistad).Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As for the supporting cast, the introduced chara cters work quite well into the overall tone of the movie. Which is even more important, they not only serve as the growing foil for Cinque, but also help to tell the story and make it more graphic. For instance, Van Buren is portrayed in a very specific manner. He is not a negative character, but something in-between, a man who wants neither to have the reputation of a monster nor to break the state balance, admitting basic human rights to the African people: â€Å"its the independence of our courts that keeps us free† (Amistad). Even John Quincy Adams, the historical figure obviously used as a plot device, adds a specific epic flair to the movie. As a matter of fact, his character arch at times is even more interesting than Cinque’s; for example, it is quite peculiar to watch him switching from passionate speeches (â€Å"You and this young so-called lawyer have proven you know what they are. Theyre Africans† (Amistad)) to providing solid pieces of evidence in t he course of the trial (â€Å"How is it that a simple, plain property issue has should now find itself so ennobled as to be argued before the Supreme Court of the United States of America† (Amistad)), from sarcastic (â€Å"in the courtroom, whoever tells the best story wins† (Amistad)) to sincere (â€Å"Give us the courage to do what is right† (Amistad)). Of course, there are serious political and historical flaws in the movie. Senjbe Pieh had already been kidnapped and enslaved several times before appearing on Amistad; likewise, Adams was portrayed in a way too dignified manner; Theodore Joadson is a figment of the screenwriter’s imagination; this list can go on even longer than the movie does. However, the big deciding point is whether the movie conveys its message successfully, and it does – the audience can feel the agony of the lead character, the movie makes it clear that equality is what the entire world should strive for and that every sin gle human being should have the same rights as the others. Hence, one can turn a blind eye to some of the historical flaws. Therefore, Amistad can be viewed as a Making Movie 101 – every single element of the film is tightly intertwined with the other ones, the characters are memorable, and even the elements used as a compromise between the movie originality and the existing standard for historical movies of such scale, work for the advantage of the film. Though it has been properly sanitized, it still deserves watching, not as a way to render the historical events, but as a way to make sure that human rights still remain a topical issue even in the XXI century. Amistad. Ex. Prod. Laurie McDonald and Walter Parkers. Universal City, CA: DreamWorks. 1997. DVD.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Up from Slavery, Down to the Ground: Sailing Amistad. A specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

Saturday, February 22, 2020

1960's Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

1960's - Essay Example The conflict, of course, began when the French decided to release their colonial claims to Vietnam. The French army was driven from Vietnam in 1954, resulting in the Geneva Peace Accords. This created a temporary partition of Vietnam at the seventeenth parallel, until 1956, when nationwide elections would be held. While the Communist powers in the Soviet Union and China did want the entire nation of Vietnam to become Communist, they predicted that the 1956 election would accomplish their aims without bringing the United States into the conflict (The Wars for Vietnam: 1945 to 1975). Rather than initiate another conflict similar to Korea, the American government began a concerted effort to win the political minds of those living to the south of the Communist zone. A major part of this effort was the creation of SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization). Initially, the American efforts were successful: the 1956 elections brought Ngo Dinh Diem, a firm opponent of Communism, to power in South Vietnam. However, Diem claimed that the North Vietnamese were preparing to take the southern half of Vietnam by force, and the Americans began aiding his military maneuvers against the northern half in 1957. Diem used a variety of brutal internal measures in South Vietnam to quell the Communist insurgency, including Law 10/59, which permitted authorities to hold anyone who was suspected of being a Communist indefinitely, without bringing charges. Over time, Diem became increasingly autocratic, which made him an increasingly difficult leader for the United States to support. In response, the Communist insurgency began to increase the amount of violence in its protests (The Wars for Vietnam: 1945 to 1975). The National Liberation Front was the official organization for those in South Vietnam who wanted to overthrow

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Research Methods Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Research Methods - Coursework Example The value of the statistic is too small and the probability is too high to reject the null hypothesis. Thus, from the F-test we conclude that all coefficients could be jointly equal to zero. (ii) H0:?2=0 against H0:?2?0 using a significance level of 0.05 Since the alternative hypothesis is that of non-equality but no direction (greater or less than) is specified, the test will be two tailed. The computed t- statistic is equal to -2.66937 which is greater in terms of absolute value than the two-tailed 5% critical value of 2.018 (given the number of observations and variables, the degrees of freedom are 42), we reject the null hypothesis that the coefficient of 1990 GDP per-capita is not statistically significantly different from zero. (iii) H0:?3=0 against H0:?3>0 using a significance level of 0.05 Since here the alternative hypothesis is of the greater than type, the test will be right tailed. For the given number of observations and variables, the critical one sided 5% t value is 1. 682. Our computed t-value is 2.598522 which is greater than the critical value. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of confidence. This implies that we have statistical evidence of secondary enrollment having a positive impact on GDP growth. (iv) H0:?7=0 against H0:?7>0 using a significance level of 0.1 Again, the alternative is of the greater than type, implying a right tailed test. The critical 1% t-value is 2.418. From the table above, we find that the computed t-statistic is 1.50471. Since this is smaller than the critical value, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, we fail to find any evidence that credit ratio has any statistically significant impact on GDP growth. Therefore, we find a contradiction between our conclusions in (i) and (ii). While in (i) we fail to reject the notion that all the coefficients on the predictor variables are jointly zero, we reject the hypothesis that the coefficient on the first explanatory variable, the 1990 percap ita GDP is zero. But if this is true then (i) should have rejected the null in favour of the alternative which requires atleast one of the coefficients to be non-zero. Typically, such contradictions arise because of the violation of one or more of the basic assumptions underlying OLS estimation. Particularly, if there are outliers that distort the estimates, then such contradictory results can emerge. 3. Advice for choosing between alternative spending From the fitted model in the previous part we have found that secondary enrolment has a positive impact on GDP growth as does the private credit ratio. Infact the coefficients are quite close though that of private credit ratio is slightly lower. However, only the former is statistically significant. This implies that there is no evidence of increases in private credit ratio having any impacts on the GDP growth. Therefore I would recommend investing the sum of money on policy measures that will increase the country’s rate of en rolment in secondary education. 4. Diagnostics for evaluating the validity