Thursday, August 27, 2020
One regularly ponders where the Native North Americans started from. A few speculations have been examined about the peopling of the Americas. Early hypotheses including lost clans and landmasses depended simply on theory rather than real logical realities. We will compose a custom exposition test on Local North Americans: Journal Entry of a Subordinate Group or then again any comparable point just for you Request Now Revelations made during numerous archeological campaigns have helped shape the continually changing understandings by including more inquiries and more speculations. There have been hereditary and etymological investigations which raised all the more understanding and brought new inquiries. It is conjectured that during the last piece of the Cenozoic period, otherwise called the time of warm blooded creatures that the Wisconsin glaciation caused enough of the planetÃ¢â¬â¢s water gracefully to transform into ice. This brought down the seas and uncovered currently lowered land. This occasion made a stretch of land that the huge warm blooded creatures of the Ice Age time, alongside the locals of that time, could have moved over the recently framed land connect, which presently associated two mainlands. This land connect is known as the Bering Strait, or Beringia. During the time that Beringia existed, the Wisconsin ice sheets in all probability restricted relocation to any southern or eastern locales. Another hypothesis recommends that the early locals may have possessed the now Alaskan area since it was without ice because of low precipitation. A few melts over some stretch of time made paths, and proof from archeological site infers that there was a sans ice hall for a great many years. It was during another soften around ten thousand years back, that a subsequent hallway was in all likelihood framed farther east along the fringes of Saskatchewan and Canada fields. This focuses to the likelihood that the old individuals could have voyage eastbound along the waterways in the Great Plains, and down further south. The Indians referred to history as the Sioux are otherwise called Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota, which means partners. This is my legacy. I am an individual from the biggest division of Siouan family, also called Sioux. The name is from a term given to the biggest and notable of the innate gatherings. At once, my kin extended from the west banks of the Mississippi northward from Arkansas and the Rocky Mountains. The Dakotas likewise possessed region east of the waterway up to Wisconsin and Missouri. They were here to experience DeSoto on his excursion in 1541, when he arrived at the Indian towns in what is presently eastern Arkansas. An additional hundred years went before any notice of Sioux existing, when in 1658 some Jesuit ministers knew about the presence of around thirty Dakota towns only north of a Potawatomi strategic. This was situated at about the head of Green Bay, Wisconsin, in St. Michael. It was during the center 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s when the Sioux, alongside the Arapaho and Cheyenne needed to relocate further westbound towards the Great Plains what exactly is known as North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. This relocation was essentially because of the O jibwa and Chippewa clans pushing them out of the Great Lakes area. The Ojibwa and Chippewa had been pushed out of their own property that had been further east, by the European pilgrims of that time. In 1805 Lewis and Clark went through the focal point of this district and reached the Sioux clans. After this occurred, a few additional undertakings brought brokers that settled among the clans, and throughout some time, changeless pilgrims showed up. This made the region so little that in the end the individuals of my clan had to live in Indian Territories or kept to Nebraska, the Dakotas, or Montana. This welcomed on a progression of strikes and counter attacks that kept going from about 1850 through 1890 and were known as the Sioux Wars. In the main long periods of the twentieth century, the Dakotas otherwise called Tetons started the way toward adjusting to their better approach forever. They despite everything had solid confidence in their own conventions, yet understood that the old way was gone for eternity. Various changes with the economy and legislative issues were constrained on my kin by the legislature. The individuals strived to set up a life for themselves that utilized both new changes, yet at the same time stayed consistent with their qualities and convictions. During the remainder of the twentieth century, the entirety of the bookings for the Dakotas, Lakotas, and Tetons lost more land because of possession passes and legacies. Division between rustic occupants and individuals who live around have become greater. Rustic occupants will in general hold their utilization of local language, and be engaged with social occasions, when townspeople adjust different parts of the American culture. A large portion of the Sioux country and different gatherings of American Indians live in South Dakota, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and North Dakota at present time on privatized land made by the legislature numerous years prior. Wendy Coghill Step by step instructions to refer to Native North Americans: Journal Entry of a Subordinate Group, Papers
Saturday, August 22, 2020
In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s time-compelled society, clinical specialists are recognizably going to current innovation to pinpoint medical issues of patients. Most new-age specialists who depend a lot on advanced machines in finding out clinical issues looked by their patients delineate a frightening reality: the standard physical assessment stands to be backed out. While science has made conceivable snappier, increasingly advantageous, and non-obtrusive methods of spotting and treating wellbeing issue, being excessively subject to innovation has its downsides. The issue with innovation emerges when specialists race to arrange tests without first playing out a careful physical examÃ¢â¬ ¦ Doctors might be excessively dependent on tests since they believe in the outcomes; notwithstanding, tests arenÃ¢â¬â¢t consistently accurateÃ¢â¬ (Max, 2009, standard. 6). An apparently better methodology that redounds to persistent advantage is the blend of present day innovation with age-old practices that worked, quite an exhaustive physical assessment Ã¢â¬ done before tests or conceivable restriction and as a feature of the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s medical clinic adjusts. There are a few elements adding to the destruction or avoidance of the standard physical assessment in present day clinical practice. For one, there is the deficiency of clinical faculty in specific areas. Harried specialists and medical caretakers wind up utilizing measures to boost time. Ã¢â¬Å"Time limitations likewise dishearten playing out a total physical during routine office visits. The oversaw care framework pushes specialists to consider patients to be quickly as possibleÃ¢â¬ (Obel, 2003, standard. 6). The truth of the matter is that the physical assessment Ã¢â¬Å"can be an important guide in choosing which tests to request and telling masters where to focus their effortsÃ¢â¬ (Obel, 2003, standard. 7). Subsequently, the standard physical assessment can significantly help specialists in precluding certain medical problems, in this way setting aside time and cash on superfluous tests. Nonetheless, new-age specialists neglect these, accepting that utilizing advanced hardware is progressively compelling in arriving at a precise clinical investigation than regular routine practices. In fact, an expert conclusion depending as a matter of first importance on the standard physical assessment seems to have been dislodged by present day gadgets. The drawback is the loss of human contact that most patients may even now like. Ã¢â¬Å"There is an impalpable advantage to the contact managed by the physical examÃ¢â¬ ¦(it) can go far in setting up and constructing a decent specialist tolerant relationshipÃ¢â¬ (Max, 2009, standard. 11), something which most patients Ã¢â¬ from the exceptionally youthful to the old Ã¢â¬ long for. The enthusiastic holding between the medicinal services supplier and the patient is crushed with less time assigned to look at patients. As prepared clinical experts discredit the end of the physical assessment, which Ã¢â¬Å"can be restorative in itselfÃ¢â¬ (Obel, 2003, standard. 35), concerned clinical organizations have actuated endeavors to prepare and retrain clinical understudies on the huge scope of clinical methodologies Ã¢â¬ including the routine physical assessment. The inexorably significant job of medical attendants, who can accept the essential assignment of reviving the blurring practice of leading an intensive physical assessment and advancing human association, can't be thought little of. Very much prepared attendants who understand the estimation of human association can assume huge job in encouraging improved patient consideration and quicker recuperation. The upsurge in electronic innovation clients is another wonder influencing the destruction of up close and personal collaboration with doctors and the conventional physical assessment. With numerous specialists these days apportioning clinical exhortation online by depending simply on quiet history and depiction of side effects, consequently disposing of the requirement for an exhaustive physical assessment, it turns out to be evident that cutting edge patterns are replacing conventional clinical methodologies. The unpreventable reality is that clinical professionals can't generally thoroughly depend on current innovation alone to find out patient needs. Indeed, even in present day times, there is a need to return to essentials, instill quiet arranged aptitudes among the developing harvest of specialists, and resuscitate traditional clinical methodologies like the physical assessment.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Get Back to Studying Routine (Checklist for College Students) out of your hair and get yourself into back-to-college mode again. Its that time again. The long days of summer are coming to an end and the fall semester is upon us. Some students have a difficult time leaving the liberty of their summer days behind and getting serious about studying again. Its perfectly natural, but its also time for you to shake the sand If you need some help regaining your focus after the long break, here are some tips for you on how to develop a studying routine: Make a schedule The best way to start getting into a routine is to make a schedule of all of your activities. Whether you write out your schedule by hand and tape it to your wall or use a time management app like rememberthemilk, writing down your commitments helps you remember to keep them. Include things like class schedules, extracurricular activities, sports, clubs, job schedules and important events. By making a schedule, youre also mapping out where there might be conflicts, so you can anticipate them and come up with a solution. Choose your study environment Part of establishing a routine is finding the place where youll study. Some people do great work in public places like cafes or on a park bench. Other people need utter silence and prefer to study in an isolated corner of the library or in their room. Figure out where you work best and carve that space out as yours. If youre tempted to lie down and take a nap if you study in your room, pack up your books and head to the library. Wherever you choose, try to stick to that place. Its a way to trigger your brain into work mode when you sit down at your favorite study spot. in study groups If theres a study group for a course youre struggling in, sign up for it. Exchanging ideas with your peers can help answer questions and clear doubts you have about the material. It can also help you prioritize studying for this course, which is exactly what you should be doing if you find yourself falling behind. Set goals Set your goals for the semester. Not only academic goals, though they should definitely be included on the list, but goals for other activities you participate in. Dont make your list too long. Prioritize and focus. Whats really important to you? Maybe you want to earn a 3.5 this semester. What kind of grades would you need in order to achieve that? Maybe you want to make the Varsity Womens Rowing Team or be elected class president. What steps do you need to take in order to make that happen? Pick 2-3 goals and write them down somewhere youll see them often. Goal-setting gives you direction and purpose in your activities and helps you maintain your focus. Prioritize Dont let yourself become overloaded with activities. A full course load, a part-time job, captain of the basketball team, lead in the play, volunteering for a local tutoring program, etc. Its not always possible to do everything you want to do and when you try doing too many things, you end up short-changing yourself. Choose the most important activities to you and eliminate the rest. If you find yourself with enough free time, then you can start adding more activities to your schedule. Limit social media Social media is the most popular way to procrastinate and the easiest way to waste precious studying time. If you find yourself grabbing your cell phone and checking your messages every time you try to read your Advanced Economics textbook, its time to get your social media habits under control. Consider leaving your cell phone in your room while you go to the library to study so youre not tempted to look at it. Or, if you need to have your phone with you, at least turn off the sound notifications so you wonât check it every time it beeps. Limit the amount of time you allow yourself to check it every day and stick to it. Turn your cell phone off at night and get a good, uninterrupted nights sleep. Get enough sleep Though many college students adopt the adage âYou can sleep when youre deadâ throughout their college years, sleep deprivation and brain functioning dont go together. In fact, the average adult needs 8-10 hours of sleep in order to achieve optimum brain activity. Lack of focus, tiredness, crankiness are all symptoms of not getting enough sleep. For more information on sleep and how it effects you, read this article. Remember that the point of college is to study and earn a degree. Take it seriously so you can show up to your classes and give your academic life the attention it deserves. Eat well College students are notorious for their poor eating habits. For many students who live on campus, this is their first time away from home and their first experience having to control their diets. Excess caffeine, junk food and alcohol are epidemics on college campuses. The brain is an organ, like any other organ in the body, it functions best when its being fed a healthy diet. Tuna, salmon, walnuts, and blueberries are all considered foods that contribute to healthy brain activity. For a list of healthy food choices, click here. Constant hangovers, sugar highs and upset stomachs can have negative effects on your academic life. Eating a balanced diet can give you the energy you need to complete your workload. Have fun Dont forget to have fun. Working too hard can become counter-productive. If you have a tendency to be a workaholic, its best you start learning this lesson early before you begin your professional career. Take breaks when you need to. And make sure you spend time with your friends and the rest of the campus community. Giving your brain some time to relax will allow you to return to your studying with new energy.
Monday, May 25, 2020
It is no secret that the United States of America has a problem with civil unrest, as that was essentially what the country was founded upon. As a sophisticated young individual living in modern times, one can see how the naÃ ¯ve public thought that the problems of the past would stay in the past. The only difference is the groups represented in each party. Police, skepticism, and fear are all still prevalent factors in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, just the people being oppressed are not colonists, but minorities living fairly in this country. I personally feel disgusted by the fact that individuals have to live their lives consistently looking behind their backs, but IÃ¢â¬â¢m not the only one. Ross Gay, an African-American professor at Indiana University and author of Ã¢â¬Å"Some Thoughts on MercyÃ¢â¬ , knows firsthand this feeling of paranoia and a mistrust in law enforcement. After reading his article Ã¢â¬Å"Some Thoughts on MercyÃ¢â¬ , I really do believe it boils down to one s imple message. Growing skepticism and fear of the presence of an ever-looming police force is directly affecting the psychological and physical health of minorities who are unjustly racially profiled by law enforcement. Ross Gay conveys this through his own personal accounts, and encounters with law enforcement. Sadly, this is a prevalent issue in the United States, one that should not be overlooked. Now when talking about the psychological or physical health of anyone other than yourself, any piece of information is subjective to theShow MoreRelatedWar Was A Cruel And Dark Life For A Soldier1076 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCommanding General speaking, Ã¢â¬Å"On the hill, Rebels.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Captain put some sense into that thick skull of yours and get out there and kill Ã¢â¬Ëem.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Right away sirÃ¢â¬ Author speaking, Ã¢â¬Å"Okay Ill go up the side with my troops and flank the west end of the army.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Charge!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Show no mercy.Ã¢â¬ As I slew my la st death a complication had aroused in my mind. For in the night of the massacre, the thought of my own selfish pride almost swallowed me whole. The thought that I held the choice of life and death in the very palmsRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?864 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In the past, there have been practices of mercy killing for incurable animals. If the animals seem impossible to recover their health, a veterinarian is able to help them reach to death. Though there are some people disagreeing with animal mercy killing, most of people agree on it and it is legal. However, when it comes to human, there is a furious controversy over euthanasia. Because there is a sharp conflict on the issue, some countries accept mercy killing lawful while others do not. The mainRead More Merchant of Venice Essay: The True Nature of Venetian Society884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The idea of mercy is important in The Merchant of Venice because it provides a focus for the contrast between Venetian Christian society and the alien invader, represented by Shylock. Mercy occupies a central position in the trial scene (IV.i.), where the power struggle between aristocratic Venetian society and the threatening force Shylock comes to a climax. My thesis is that the contrast between (and equation of) mercy and revenge in the trial scene reveals the true nature of Venetian societyRead MoreReflection Paper : Mercy And Wisdom952 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReflection Paper: Mercy Wisdom When a person asks me to describe God, there are always two words that come to mind. God is merciful and God is wise. God showed mankind mercy by sending His only Son to die on the cross. The Lord shows us His wisdom in Bible, allowing us to see His knowledge and reason. Each day mankind should work towards being merciful and wise in order to show we are created in the image of God. Part One: Mercy Theological Definition The definition of the word mercy is, Ã¢â¬Å"kind or forgivingRead MoreA Comparison of BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s Poems Ã¢â¬Å"the Divine ImageÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the Human AbstractÃ¢â¬ 1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImageÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Human AbstractÃ¢â¬ William Blake (1757-1827, London) is considered the first of the great English Romantic poets; he was also a master engraver, a printer, and a painter. Blake was not widely known during his life and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until some time after his death that his poetic works became widely read. Two of his best-known works Ã¢â¬Å"Songs of InnocenceÃ¢â¬ (SoI) and Ã¢â¬Å"Songs of ExperienceÃ¢â¬ (SoE) contain the poems that I will compare here. These collections of poems are companions, but it shouldRead MoreLife Of A Slave Girl By Harriet Ann Jacobs Essay1080 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGwynedd Mercy University is a Catholic University founded and sponsored by the Sisters of Mercy. The Sisters of Mercy commit to serving, advocating for, and praying for those in need all over the world. They work passionately to reduce critical concerns that are prevalent in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society; for example, issues consisting of denial of human rights, degradation of the earth, violence, and racism. Althou gh multiple critical concerns could fit, the critical concern of denial of human rights was mostRead More Is Chivalry Alive Today Essay710 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Chivalry is the type of thing that would be great to have in our society but I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that it exists too much anymore in the world today. Let me break down here some of the chivalry rules compared with the actions of the people of the current world. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;One rule of chivalry is that you have to honor and respect women. Back in the days of King Arthur this was carried out greatly but if you look at the lack of respect given to women today you see that this rule ofRead MoreJesus And The Mercy Of God1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBiblical Studies Assessment - ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s Role in revealing the Mercy of God The theme for this year, 2016, is the theme of Mercy. Mercy is often portrayed or defined as an act of righteousness expressed by one individual toward another and can be shown or expressed through words and actions of compassion, forgiveness, hospitality etc. The theme of Mercy is known to be significant toward the original audience, also known as the wealthy, educated and good living Gentile Christians. This is a significantRead More Essay on Justice vs. Morality in Measure for Measure and Merchant of Venice1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe underlying theme of each work is well defined by the phrase Justice without the temperance of mercy, is power misused.Ã I will support this claim by drawing upon some of the characters and situations that are consistent in each story. In each story a mans life depends on the interpretation, and sanctioning of justice.Ã In the, Merchant of Venice, Antonio (who I believe represents mercy), had sealed a bond with Shylock offering a pound of his flesh for the loan of three thousand ducatsRead MoreThe Crusades Were A Chain Of Military And Religious Campaigns1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCatholics to increase Christian influence in the Holy Land, which is Palestine. Some religious leaders actually inspired these crusades and had a key role in forming and commencing the Crusades. These religious figures were popes, bishops, and theologians. Peter the Hermit, Gottschalk, Pope Urban II, Pope Innocent III, Bernard of Clairvaux, Peter of Blois, and many more, were all people that played a key role in the Crusades . Some of them got armies together and called people to crusade. For example, Pope
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Georgetown University is a highly selectiveÃ private research university with an acceptance rate of 14.5%. Located in Washington D.C., Georgetown is the nations oldest Catholic and Jesuit university. Considering applying to this highly selective school? Here are the admissions statistics you should know. Why Georgetown University? Location: Washington, D.C.Campus Features: Situated above the Potomac River, Georgetowns compact 104-acre campus gives students easy access to the nations capital. The campus is home to numerous attractive stone and brick buildings.Student/Faculty Ratio: 11:1Athletics: The Georgetown Hoyas compete in the NCAA Division I Big East Conference for most sports.Highlights: Georgetowns location has led to a sizable international student population as well as the popularity of the International Relations major. The school is in close proximity to many other D.C. area colleges and universities. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Georgetown University had an acceptance rate of 14.5%. For every 100 students who applied, 14 students were admitted, making Georgetowns admissions process highly competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 22,897 Percent Admitted 14.5% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 51% SAT Scores and Requirements Georgetown requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 68% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th percentile 75th percentile ERW 700 760 Math 710 790 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of Georgetowns admitted students fall within the top 7% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Georgetown scored between 700 and 760, while 25% scored below 700 and 25% scored above 760. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 710 and 790, while 25% scored below 710 and 25% scored above 790. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1550 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at Georgetown. Requirements Georgetown does not require the SAT writing section. Note that Georgetown requires applicants to submit all SAT test scores. Georgetown does not participate in scorechoice; it considers the highest SAT score from a single test date. Applicants are also required to submit scores for 3 Subject tests for admission to Georgetown. ACT Scores and Requirements Georgetown requires all applicants to submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 55% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th percentile 75th percentile English 31 35 Math 28 34 Composite 32 35 This admissions data tell us that most of Georgetowns admitted students fall within the top 3% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Georgetown received a composite ACT score between 32 and 35, while 25% scored above 35 and 25% scored below 32. Requirements Georgetown does not require the ACT writing section. Note that Georgetown requires applicants to submit all ACT test scores. Georgetown does not participate in scorechoice; it considers the highest ACT score from a single test date. Regardless of whether you submit the ACT or SAT, you are still required to submit scores for 3 Subject tests to Georgetown. GPA Georgetown does not provide data about admitted students high school GPAs. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Georgetown Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex.Ã The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Georgetown. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Georgetown University has a highly competitive admissions pool with a low acceptance rate and high average SAT/ACT scores. However, Georgetown, like most of the countrys top universities, has a holistic admissions process involving other factors beyond your grades and test scores. A strong application essay and glowing letters of recommendation can strengthen your application, as can participation in meaningful extracurricular activities, work experience, and a rigorous high school curriculum. The application requires three short essays: one about a school or summer activity, one about you, and one focused on the school or college at Georgetown to which you are applying. Note that Georgetown is one of the few top universities that uses its own application and does not use the Common Application. Georgetown University also requires all first-year applicants to complete an interview with a local alumnus unless it is geographically impossible. Most interviews take place near the applicants home. Although rarely the most important part of the application, the interview helps the university get to know you better, providing a chance for you to highlight interests that may not be evident on your application, as well as giving you an opportunity to learn more about Georgetown. All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Georgetown University Undergraduate Admissions Office.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The novel Uncle Toms Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and published in the United States in 1852. The novel depicted slavery as a moral evil and was the cause of much controversy at the time and long after. Uncle Toms Cabin outraged the South and received praise in the North. The publication of Uncle Toms Cabin was a major turning point for the United States which helped bring about the Civil War. Uncle Toms Cabin is said to have contributed to the Civil War because it brought the evils of slavery to the attention of Americans more vividly than any other book had done before (Harrietts Life). The novel made people who had never really thought about slavery realize how cruel and unjust it was. It also turned manyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Uncle Toms Cabin was liked and disliked by many people in America. When Abraham Lincoln met Harriet Beecher Stowe after the beginning of the American Civil War, he supposedly said to her, So youre the little woman that wrote the book that started this Great War (Harriets Life). Lincoln was referring to Harriett Beecher Stowes book Uncle Toms Cabin. The quote implies that even the president of America had recognized and emphasized the impact of the novel on American Society as being the key cause to something as important as the Civil War. Harriet Beecher Stowe began writing Uncle Toms Cabin after the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed (Africans). The Fugitive Slave Act was an agreement between the north and the south that mainly said that if a runaway slave was caught in a free state, the runaway slave had to be returned to his or her owner (Uncle). She started to publish her story first as a series of stories in a newspaper called the Era, and when a publisher by the name of John Punchard Jewett read the article, he decided to publish it in book form (Harrietts Life). It became the best seller in the United States, England, Europe and Asia (Harrietts Life). The novel also began to be dramatized all over the world without the consent of Stowe. Uncle Toms Cabin not only became a success in book form but also in dramatic from. In this novel there are many families who end up getting torn apart from eachShow MoreRelatedUncle Toms Cabin829 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUncle Toms Cabin, composed by Harriet Beecher Stowe and distributed in 1852, is an abolitionist-themed novel portraying the tragedies of bondage in the United States. It was immensely persuasive, prompted the formation of a basic pejorative, and was maybe even a reason for the Civil War. The story opens on a Kentucky ranch, home to the kind and venerated Uncle Tom, and the junior Eliza and her tyke. The story has a few significant characters, yet bases on Tom and Eliza. The managers of the homesteadRead MoreUncle Toms Cabin1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the year 1852, nine short years before the civil war began in 1861, Harriet Stowe published arguably the most influential, groundbreaking, and controversial books in American history, Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin. The novel drew widespread criticism for the depiction of African Americans and slaves in a time when the United States of America was teetering on civil unrest due to the strength of the opposing views between the North and the South. The rapid expansion and growth the United States throughoutRead MoreUncle Toms Cabin Analysis1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s CabinÃ¢â¬ , was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and published in 1852. StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose for writing Ã¢â¬Å"Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s C abinÃ¢â¬ , was to depict the lives of African Americans that are enslaved to whites in hopes to bring about change and encourage abolition protest. Uncle Tom was portrayed as a Godly man with a good heart it was meant show that slaves are just as human as whites, and that slavery should be saw as inhumane and unjust. There are several important concepts that are alluded to, but slaveryRead More Morality in Uncle Toms Cabin1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Morality in Uncle Toms Cabin nbsp; One Work Citednbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Toms Cabin in order to help bring the plight of southern slave workers into the spotlight in the north, aiding in its abolitionist movement. nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Harriet Beecher Stowe, in her work Uncle Toms Cabin, portrayed slaves as being the most morally correct beings, often times un-humanistically so, while also portraying many whites and slave-owners to be morallyRead MoreUncle Toms Cabin Essay690 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUncle Toms Cabin Uncle Toms Cabin follows the lives of two slaves that live on a Kentucky plantation. Tom, a black slave, and a young mulatto woman named Eliza are under the ownership of Mr. Shelby. Tom is his most trusted slave, while Eliza is Mrs. Shelbys beloved servant, whom she has raised since she was a young girl. Mr. Shelby is a kind man, but is not very good with his finances. He is indebted to a slave trader by the name of Haley. The story begins with Haley givingRead MoreRacism in Uncle Toms Cabin1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHarriet Beecher Stowes novel Uncle Toms Cabin was the defining piece of the time in which it was written. The book opened eyes in both the North and South to the cruelties that occurred in all forms of slavery, and held back nothing in exposing the complicity of non-slaveholders in the upholding of Americas peculiar institution. Then-president Abraham Lincoln himself attributed Stowes narrative to being a cause of the American Civil War. In such an influenti al tale that so powerfully points outRead MoreSlavery in Uncle Toms Cabin Essay478 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesSlavery in Uncle Toms Cabin Stowe presents slavery in the only way she knows how, by using the facts. Several sources of other works in American literature contrast on to how Stowe presents slavery in her novel Uncle Toms Cabin. The elements of slavery are driven through the reflections of theme, characterization, and setting to show that the way slavery is presented is not contradicting. Through the character of Mrs. Shelby, Stowe seems to use her opposition against slavery the mostRead MoreCritical Reflection of Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin2270 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesCritical Reflection of Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin August 14 2012 Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Christianity had an essential role in the abolition of slave trade in American Society. American Christianity impressively contributed to American Revolution (1775-1783) as well as Civil War (1861-1865) (Parfait 47). Even though, the role of Christianity in slavery remained abstruse as some Christians, especially from the Southern America supported slavery, its importance in anti-slavery struggle remained noteworthy. Slavery was generallyRead MoreThe Influence of the 1850s in Uncle Toms Cabin2754 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThe Influence of the 1850s in Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin Despite heartbreaking family separations and struggles for antislavery Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) erupted into one of the greatest triumphs recorded in literary history (Downs 228), inspiring plays, pictures, poems, songs, souvenirs, and statues (Claybaugh 519). As Uncle Toms Cabin was being published in the National Era newspaper in forty weekly installments (x), it was received by southerners asRead MoreUncle Toms Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin has been explained as being a history of harmful acts towards Blacks in America for a period of a hundred and thirty years (Stowe, Ã¢â¬Å"NineteenthÃ¢â¬ ). 51).The book Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin was one of HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite books (Stowe, Ã¢â¬Å"NineteenthÃ¢â¬ 1). It talks about how Tom would do anything for the white man (Stowe, Uncle 1). The southerners did not give Harriet Beecher Stowe and credit for writing the book (Piacentino 1). Uncle Tom showed a lot of Christianity in this book, but the master
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The Impact of Cultism and Examination Malpractices on the Quality of Education in the 21st Century Nigeria free essay sample
INTRODUCTION Many Nigerians were aware of the rot in the nation under the years of military dictatorship, but hardly knew the magnitude of the rot. As it is with the nation, so it is with the education sector; only those saddled with the responsibility of administering our education system can appreciate the crisis in the education system. And just as the damage done to the nation will take a long time to correct, sanitizing the education sector will take quite some years of continuous and determined reformation. Many reform measures do not bear fruits overnight. This is even more so in the education sector. For example, the impact of Chief Obafemi AwolowoÃ¢â¬â¢s free primary education was not fully felt among the Yoruba till the civil war and after, when they had to occupy Federal positions abandoned by the Igbo. The twin evils of campus cultism and examination malpractices entrenched themselves in the campuses during the years of military despotism. They are product of the years of decay while the nature of inter-campus linkages of cult groups as well as the sophistication with which malpractices are now being perpetuated in various examinations has made the matter more difficult to rout (Omabu, 2003). Aims and Objectives of Education in Nigeria Education has been described as the best legacy that any nation or individual could leave behind for generation yet to come. It is an invaluable asset, therefore, to both the individual and the society; since it has been also used from time immemorial, as a veritable instrument of cultural transmission. Thus education, in one form or the other, had always been an integral part of the human society. Generally, forms of education could be broadly categorized into formal and informal. Whereas, the former takes place in a formal or official setting, compartmentalized and certificated with designated learners and teachers, the latter is not so clearly designed. It has a longer life-span commencing from birth and ending in the grave, with everyone around the learner constituting his teacher even as no certificate is required. Yet, this form of education is as important as the former; if not more; if only for the fact that it is quite a practical thing with all the evidences of effective and functional noble expectations and objectives of the formal system of education. Indeed, it has a multilateral aim with the end objectives being to produce an individual who is honest, respectable skilled and cooperative and conforms to the social order of the day. According to Fafunwa (1974), seven aspects of these educational objectives can be identified and these include:- 1. To develop the childÃ¢â¬â¢s latent physical skills. . To develop character. 3. To inculcate respect for elders and those in position of authority. 4. To develop intellectual skills. 5. To acquire specific vocational training and to develop a healthy attitude towards honest labour. 6. To develop a sense of belonging and to participate actively in family and community affair. 7. To understand, appreciate and promote the cultural heritage of the community at large. Thus, it was for good reasons that the Nigerian formal education system took after these objectives as enunciated in the National Policy on Education (1981). According to Policy, the broad objectives of Nigerian education should emphasize such things as:- i. The inculcation of the right type of value attitudes for the survival of individual society. ii. The training of the mind in building valuable concepts, generalizations and understand of the world around. iii. The acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies of both mental and physical nature as equipment for the individual to live in his society. iv. The acquisition of relevant and balance knowledge of facts about local and world phenomena. In the light of the first two objectives above, Nigerian education was to be geared towards self realization, better human relationship, self and national economic efficiency, citizenship, national consciousness, national unity, social and political progress, science and technological progress as well as national reconstruction. In pursuance of the objectives therefore, our educational institutions (pre- to post-primary) have designed their programmes in such a way that functional individual who will be capable of contributing his quota to national development is produced. But the question however remains as to what extent have these objectives been achieved? How well and indeed dependable are those measuring instruments such as internal and external examinations capable of producing the desired results? Evolutionary Trends in Cultist Activities in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions The phenomenon of campus cults in Nigeria dated back to 1952, when Wole Soyinka winner of the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize for Literature-and a group of friends at the University of Ibadan formed the Pyrates Confraternity with the motto Ã¢â¬Å"Against all ConventionsÃ¢â¬ . The skull and cross bones were their insignia, cultivating a bohemian style that ridiculed the colonial attitudes mode of dress of the day. This caught on among students and over the next two decades, the fraternity, a non-violent body, became established in all the tertiary institutions that emerged in post-independence Nigeria. The emergence of campus cults as they are known in Nigeria today began with a split in the Pyrates Confraternity during the early 1970s when a breakaway group formed the Buccaneers Confraternity followed by the emergence of the Black Axe or the Neo-Black Movement. Inter-group rivalry then set in, even though skirmishes between them were limited to fist fights. The 1980s saw the multiplication of cults in the more than 300 tertiary institutions across Nigeria as new groups such as the Eiye, Vikings, Amazons and Jezebel emerged, bringing with them more intensely violent rivalry. By 1984, when Soyinka initiated the abolition of the Pyrates Confraternity in all tertiary institutions, the phenomenon of violent had developed a life of its own. By the mid-1980s, reports had it that some of the cults have been co-opted by elements in the intelligence and security services serving the military government such that they were used as foils to the left-wing student unions which, along with university teachers, were among the only remaining bastions of opposition to military rule. Cultism includes the activities of secret cults or societies that are very rampant in our institutions of learning today. The founding fathers of such societies do not have the mind of carrying out evils but as a pressure group that can monitor and defend the interest of the immorality of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ populace without violence. But the activities of the various cults seen day in our institutions are far from the above reasons. They have constituted themselves into gangs of Ã¢â¬Å"never-do-wellÃ¢â¬ set of people. Their mission today is to loot, kill, steal and destroy lives and properties at will. The violence associated with them is reported to be as a result of battles for supremacy among them. They have constituted themselves into a big cog in the wheel of NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s education development. Indeed, the growth and maturation of examination malpractice tendencies in our tertiary institutions have been considered as one of the direct fallouts of cultism. Hardly a month passes these days, without reports of deaths of students or staff resulting from cult-related violence. This has not only created an atmosphere of insecurity in our campuses, it is also diverting attention from the primary purpose of the universities which is education. At a time when funding of these institutions are inadequate, and the standard of education is said to be falling, cultism and examination malpractices tendencies are clearly a big problem for the concerned authorities. Both of the most frequently discussed problems in the education sector today; since indiscipline in schools is central to the factors contributing to the fast dwindling, declining and deteriorating educational standard. The various acts of indiscipline commonly perpetrated by students such as truancy, stealing, hooliganism, examination malpractices, sexual immoralities and cultism among others are all destructive to the educational system. Taiwo (2004) declared that Ã¢â¬Å"what we are all witnessing today in the education sector is a sad reflection of corruption in the society and the low priority placed on standardization and improvement of the intellectual custodians of our time by those in governanceÃ¢â¬ . This is against the fact that most members of these cults are from rich homes and are never serious with their studies; thus prompting their venturing into examination malpractices. Whenever they fail their courses, they react violently through their cult members against the teachers in charge of their failed courses. They operate at night and conduct initiation of new members at dawn in these institutions coming out with dangerous weapons at the middle of the nights when students who are ignorant of their activities fall victim. The recent arrest of some students who were believed to be cult members at Esa-Oke Federal Technical College serves as typical case in point. The fire of cult terrorism on the campuses which raged on for about one year, after the half-heated spray of cult antidote by the Federal Government in 1999, has steadily intensified and burst into flames once more. In the first two weeks of August 2004, 33 students of three universities were brutally murdered in cultic butcheries, suspected to have been perpetuated by cult members among students of tertiary institutions. Of the figure, 15 were of the Ebonyi State University, whose eight other students had similarly been killed the previous year. The rest 18 were of the Enugu State University of Science and Technology and the University of Nigeria Nsukka, whose five other students were shot dead in June, 2002, by cultists (Vanguard, 2004). The toll of the ever-intensifying cultic butcheries had to lecturers and officers of these institutions. Only recently, two lecturers, one each from the ESUT and the UNN, were shot dead by suspected cultists; while suspected terrorists threatened to kill the new Vice-chancellor of University of Benin, Prof. Emmanuel Nwanze, if he failed to dismantle the committee on Ã¢â¬Å"Renunciation and CultismÃ¢â¬ , which he set up after two medical students of the university were killed by suspected cultists. The cultists have also widened the scope of their operation to include armed robbery. Reasons for Prevalence of Cultist Activities in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions It is often claimed that some parents of these cultists are the brains behind the sponsoring of evil clubs releasing funds and weapons to them to carry out their obnoxious acts against humanity. This indecent moral values impacted into these youths are giving them more confidence to feel that nothing will happen to them even if they are caught with the belief that money answereth all things. Cultism in larger society has become a celebrated phenomenon among the political class who equally happen to be in control of the wealth of the nation. There are enough resources to sponsor to sponsor the baby-cultist in our institutions by these sets of evidence their political opponents whether real or perceived. Considering the various killings of innocent students in our institutions by cult members, one may want to ask, why have solutions eluded us these years in bringing a stop to the menace of this antiÃ¢â¬âsocial behaviour? We have remained in our present state of confusion for the number of reasons, which according to Taiwo (2004) include:- i. Lack of concerted and consistence political will to deal with the problem once and for all. ii. Constantly shifting and unsettled socio-cultural and educational policies and practices, which tend to negative previous efforts at solving the problem. iii. Sudden and drastic dislocation of our scale of value whereby the intellectual custodians have become systematically relegated yielding place to other less important priorities. iv. Worshipping of money to discredit intellectual zealousness among the upcoming youths. Odili (2004) gave 11 possible causes of the rising cases of cultism in these institutions to include:- i. Erosion of Education Standards ii. Economic Difficulties iii. Emulation of Military Coupists iv. Adventurism and Egotism v. Sponsorship by Community Leaders vi. Lack of Integration vii. Peer Group Influence and Drug Addiction viii. Bad Parenting and Erosion of Family Values ix. Oil Bunkering x. Sponsorship by Politicians. The diminishing economic prosperity also contributes greatly. There is the crisis of confidence and of faith in our educational institutions leading to a general state of anxiety and an erosion of confidence in getting jobs after school by the majority of the students. From the state of confusion to which the society exposed our youth, one may conclude that cultism is an offshoot and indeed a reflection of our corrupt society, which had for long plunged our educational sector into serious malfunctioning and dislocation. The Guardian (2005), in an editorial, attempted an explanation of the situation and why the problem had remained seemingly intractable in the submissions that Ã¢â¬Å"The violence associated with the cults currently can be attributed to the general breakdown of values which we once held sacrosanct. The premium attached to human life has plummeted so badly that youths can now kill without flinchingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . We therefore cannot combat the cults menace without paying attention to the problem of the larger society. An obvious explanation for the resurgence and worsening of cult crisis on the campuses is the inadequate, half-hearted enforcement of the measures already officially pronounced. The slaughter of five students of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife in one fell swoop in 1999 prompted Federal GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s adoption of an anti-cult strategy, part of which was an offer of monetary incentive to repentant cult members among students nationwide. In keeping with some recommendations of judicial panel on the cultic killings too, the government vowed to establish a unit to identify secret cults and their activities in all tertiary institutions. Also, the government empowered heads of the institutions to summarily dismiss any student properly identified as a cult member, and proposed a data-bank of students so dismissed to forestall their re-admission into any other similar institutions in Nigeria. Had these measures been adequately enforced, the soaring rate of cultic terrorism would have been drastically reduced. But the government has merely pointed its anti-cult armoury without really using the weapons to fight the bloody cults. Besides, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s order to heads of tertiary institutions to summarily dismiss cult members among their students is rendered ineffectual by the plea of the police, in a number of cases, of non-existence of a relevant laws to prosecute students for their involvement in cult activities; as the long-standing decree prohibiting cultism on the campuses is rendered unenforced, null and void. Such expelled students have often safely returned to their institutions for being secret cult members brandishing court orders for their reinstatement. The kid-glove handling of serious cult cases by the police and the judiciary, combined with the thickening suspicion that a number of rich parents, influential politicians and government officials sponsor cultism on the campuses, gives the cultists the erroneous feeling that they would always escape punishment, or if at all convicted, would suffer mild punishment (Daily Champion, 2004). Implications of Cultist Activities in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions All these are not without their very grave implications worth mentioning here. Although not all the students are involved in cultism, the few that are involved do considerable damage to the system. Since violent cult activities started, thousands of students have lost their lives to it while properties worth millions have also been destroyed. Apart from the injured and those rusticated or expelled, troubled universities students are generally known for their activism everywhere. Together with the media and civil societies, they help to protest against bad policies of government. The Vietnam War for instance, ended after heavy protests by students and other civil groups. British students recently protested against the proposed hike in fees by their government. All these are positive actions by university students. Although Nigerian students have, over the years, contributed their quota to national development, the issue of cultism has come to dent their image. If it is true that the youth of today are the leaders of tomorrow, then the stackholders in education must rise up to the challenges posed by the courge of cultism. Despite the much already done in this regard, more still need to be done to eradicate cultism from our institutions of higher learning. Summarily, Odili (2004) pinpointed 7 implications of this trend to include the following:- 1. Destruction of Lives and Properties 2. Upsurge in Crime due to Arms Proliferation 3. Epileptic University System 4. Loss of Prospective Investors 5. Loss of Government Revenue through Illegal Bunkering 6. Cost of Ma intaining Law and Order 7. Threat to Government Nature and Types of Examination Malpractices among Students Today in Nigeria, there has been an increasing occurrence of examinations malpractices among students than ever before, permeating every public examination, like the West African Examination Council (WAEC) Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) and lately National Examination Council (NECO) with rampant cases of examinations results not released or cancelled outright for many candidates. Most of these cases have come to be linked directly to examination malpractices. Similarly, institutions of higher learning have gone sophisticated in these malpractices to the extent that reports of expelled students on account of these have become a common occurrence; going on unabated. It is even believed that many prospective candidates seeking admission into higher institutions today often employ others to write the examinations for them. This readily explains the antecedent of those found with the habit in institutions of higher learning. This is because they tend to carry on, with more sophistication though, when they get into the institutions. Little wonder then that the cult platform will seem particularly appealing to this group of students as an easy escape, with a view to shoring up their academic bankruptcy. Hence the rather mutual relationship that lies between cultism and examination malpractices in these institutions. Meanwhile, the New WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary of the English Language (1992) defines examination as a formal, written, spoken or practical test especially at school or college, to see how much you know about a subject, or what you can do. On the other hand, the term alpractice refers to careless, wrong or illegal behaviour while in a professional job (Oxford Advanced LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary, 2000). Olanipekun (2003) views it as Ã¢â¬Ëthe failure to carry out properly or honestly condition specified by the examination body (School authority, for example) for the evaluation of students in a programme of studyÃ¢â¬â¢. It implies therefore that any student who before, during, after or in anticipati on of any examination or test goes against the rules and regulations guiding the conduct of the examination is involved in examination malpractices. Examination malpractices come in varying forms, shapes and sizes; with differing designations such as Ã¢â¬ËmicrochipsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëmacro-chipsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËdownloadÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËlaptopÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËgiraffeÃ¢â¬â¢ and quite recently, the use Ã¢â¬ËmercenariesÃ¢â¬â¢. Micro and macro chips are same techniques except for the variation in the sizes of the imported materials. Whereas the former has to do with small pieces of extraneous materials imported into the examinationÃ¢â¬â¢s venue, the latter is of more significant size. Ã¢â¬Å"DownloadÃ¢â¬ refers to the bringing in of the whole text from which the candidate intends to copy. Sometimes the scientific calculator can be used for the storage of relevant data, formulas etc. to be downloaded for use in the examination hall. As for Ã¢â¬ËlaptopÃ¢â¬â¢, the individual candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s lap is used as the writing surface from where relevant information can be copied in the examination as the need arises. This type is more prevalent among female in view of the fact that it is rather easier to do with the wearing of skirts. Ã¢â¬Å"GiraffeÃ¢â¬ happens to be the age-long style whereby candidates use neck-stretching to look at what another person was doing. All these have, however, come to look like a childÃ¢â¬â¢s play when compared with the sophistication and artistry that mercenary represents. A major difference between mercenary and other forms of examination malpractices is that whereas the actual candidates in question perpetuate other forms, Ã¢â¬ËmercenaryÃ¢â¬â¢ involves the recruitment of an external body to write the examinations on the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf. The examination mercenary syndrome thus refers to the practice whereby candidates employ and pay external person(s) to sit in and write examinations on their behalf. Usually, the mercenary is considered as the intellectual where-withal to write the examinations successfully for the one who has engaged his Ã¢â¬ËservicesÃ¢â¬â¢. This is because, such an individual either comes from higher institutions of learning or had already succeeded in similar examinations in the past. When Ã¢â¬ËmercenaryÃ¢â¬â¢ is used in institutions of higher learning, he is either a more competent hand in the course concerned or it is so believed. Sometimes, candidates from other institutions of higher learning are imported for the job. It suffices to state categorically that the syndrome is almost completely male-dominated generally associated with monetary incentives, reward or gratification, and sometimes to compensate an amorous relationships. There have also been a few other cases where the Ã¢â¬ËmercenaryÃ¢â¬â¢ is self-employed, that is, doing it (in compassion, they claim) for someone who, in actual fact, has not solicited such a service in the first place. Friends, sometimes male, often do this for their female colleagues as a demonstration of true friendship. Thus, it can be concluded from the foregoing that it is the Ã¢â¬ËmercenaryÃ¢â¬â¢ and means of settling the fees to be charged which, of course, varies from one Ã¢â¬ËmercenaryÃ¢â¬â¢ to the other. Implications of Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions This unfortunate development in our educational system represents a high sophistication to which examination malpractices had risen in recent times. Sadly too, some parents have been found to encourage the perpetuation of this ugly act by their children/wards either directly or indirectly. Not only has this contributed to the diminishing standard of our education, but it has also helped to cast aspersion on individual candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ certificates, which many often claimed, have not always been a true reflection of their academic standing. Due to this weak background, it is not surprising therefore that many candidates who secured admission into higher institutions with such results have been much of a disappointment. They simply could not leave up to their billings in all ramifications. Attendant frustration often result in sundry other malpractices in examinations to such an extent that they are sooner or later certified as academically unfit and marked for withdrawal on academic ground. Desperate ones among them would want to do all things possible to hang on. This often take them to all kinds of anti-social vices, prominent among which is cultism. The individual, which is the bedrock of the society, is by this token, being malformed and deformed for the future. There is no doubt therefore, that all kinds of examination malpractices stand condemnable by all the stakeholders in the education sector. This is for the simple fact that to compromise academic standards is one sure way to mortgage, if not the present, certainly the future of a people. Our today, and whatever it stands for, represents the foundations of our tomorrow. Prevalence of examination malpractices, especially the mercenary syndrome, indicates the weak foundations upon which we are to build our tomorrow therefore. Yet, our credible and lasting tomorrow is already being endangered with this ever-increasing wave of academic frauds and immoral dispositions (Issa, 2003). Although many of such students end up with brilliant results, especially at external examinations, they often find it difficult to live up to those results after securing admission into institutions of higher learning. Their apparent inability to cope well in their studies, quite often, leads to frustration thereby encouraging their environment into cultism and other related social vices. The bulk of them end up badly in their academic pursuits while the remaining few who would have crookedly sailed through to the end become social misfits. For one, they are hardly good at their jobs even as the anti-social tendencies remain with them throughout life. Yet, human resources have been considered the most vital of all resources needed for both individual and societal developments. Incidentally, the education system represents the most veritable instrument with which human resources could be created and developed. It therefore goes without saying that the individual and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s success in ensuring the laying of a good foundation for our tomorrow lies in our ability to rise above the challenges posed by this trend in examination malpractices and cultism. The Way Forward Hope is not lost yet once we are alive to the rescue mission. With respect to cultism, one cannot but agree with Odili (2004) on his 7-point agenda for a way forward, which are: 1. Moral Upbringing of Children. 2. Public Enlightenment Advocacy by the Media. 3. Re-orientation in our Tertiary Institutions and Better Funding. 4. Integrity Watch for Business, Community and Political Leaders. 5. Anti-cult Law 6. Law Enforcement 7. Job Creation and Good Governance Beyond enforcing the relevant laws on campuses, the government should step out to improved the university environment, which tends to be a fertile ground for breeding cultists. Given the uncongenial condition of the universities, bereft of teaching and learning materials, teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ incessant strikes, examination malpractices and school shut downs, students have found cult activities quite appealing. Their utmost goals of vain glory and supremacy are cheaply attainable through enlistment in cults. If universities are meant to impart knowledge and mould character, while their degrees and diplomas are awarded only to people found worthy in leaning and character, then any student identified as a cultist, murderer, or robber should be punished accordingly. They must not be allowed to remain hit-squads and agent of destruction of lives and property. Only the full weight of the law can warn them that cultism is evil, and pays no dividends. As for the case of examination malpractices, there would be the need to change our orientation and value system, which seemed to emphasize the erroneous at all cost and by all means belief, which are not only negative but also counter-productive. It is high time we begin to have a sound realization of the fact that it is not only by having a degree that one can succeed or excel in life. It is much more beyond that, because there are still a score of people who, in spite of not having a degree, actually succeeded and excelled in their chosen careers. The point must also be made that it is far better to be a self-reliant, successful artisan than an unemployed, jobless and street-roaming degree holder. If we succeed in this orientation bid, hopes are that majority of those that would remain will be those who interested in pursuing serious active studies would match the requirement and demands of a standard educational system. Finally, students must be made to understand and appreciate hard work, dedication and commitment to studies. This is where the teachers and the entire school authority need to be highly responsible and responsive. Students must be treated and dealt so as to encourage others to even better performance thereby looking up to them as source of inspirations. At that point in time, when the majority would have come to appreciate hard work, examination malpractices in general, the mercenary syndrome as well as cultism, would have been relegated to the status of an abnormality, as against the restigious status they currently enjoy. REFERENCES Aje S. A. (2001) Problems of Cultism in Nigerian School, Ilorin. Afri Ã¢â¬â Focus Investment Daily Champion, Nigeria (2004) Ã¢â¬Å"Alarming Rise in CultismÃ¢â¬ . An Editorial Opinion in Daily Champion, Nigeria. August 30th (Available at: http://champion-newspapers. com/) Edeki, E. (2004) Ã¢â¬Å"Personal View: Curbing Cultism in our Educational Syst emÃ¢â¬ . Vanguard on line Edition January 05. (Available at: http:www. Vanguardonline. com/) Fafunwa A. B. (1974) History of Education in Nigeria London: George Allen. P. 20. The Guardian Newspaper (2005) Ã¢â¬Å"Editorial on the Upsurge in Cultist ActivitiesÃ¢â¬ March 16 (Available at: http://www/. guardiansnewspapernigeria. com/) Issa, A. O. (2003) Ã¢â¬ËExamination Mercenary Syndrome and the Future of Nigerian Educational SystemÃ¢â¬â¢. A Speech Delivered at the First Book Fair Ã¢â¬Å"FEDPOFFA 2003Ã¢â¬ . Organized by FEDPOFFA Consult (1981) Federal Ministry of Education: Lagos. Rev. ed. P. 45. New WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary of the English Language (1992). New York: Lexicon Publications INC. P. 625. Odili, P. (2004) Ã¢â¬Å"The Cult Phenomenon and Security ImplicationsÃ¢â¬ A paper presented at the Summit of Security at the House of Representative, Abuja. Olanipekun, N. O. (2003) Examination Malpractices in Nigeria Schools: An Indepth Analysis, Offa: Royal Prestige Venture Omabu, O. (2003) Ã¢â¬ËCampus Cult Violence Claims 115 LivesÃ¢â¬â¢. This Day News September 4. (Available at: http:/This Day News Nigeria. com/) Oyebanji, M. (2003) Campus Confraternities. Oro: Fabule Press. Oxford Advanced LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary of English Language (2000). Great Clarendon, Oxford University Press P. 399. Taiwo, A. (2004) Ã¢â¬Å"Campus Cults: a Reflection of a Corrupt SocietyÃ¢â¬ . Daily Times Nigeria. May 13 (Available at: http//www/. daily times of Nigeria. com).